- Vivace e con spirito
- Andante, 3/8
- Menuetto & Trio
- Finale: Presto, 12/8
Here is how the first movement opens:
|Click to enlarge|
So, what is going on there? The three opening chords (I-V7-I) seem to be an introduction to the theme, not the theme itself, which starts in m. 2. Oh, I recommend NOT reading the Wikipedia article on this symphony as whoever wrote it thinks that "The first movement starts with three declamatory chords at intervals of a rising fourth and a falling minor second". Falling minor second? Just looked at the first violin part and didn't notice the harmony? Anyway, the theme is a nice symmetrical eight measures, but it doesn't quite fit either the sentence or the period model. There is a two measure basic idea that ends on the dominant, then this is immediately repeated, ending on the tonic. Ok, could be a sentence. But then these four measures are simply repeated an octave lower, so it almost feels like a period as there is none of the feel of the continuation section of a sentence. Then the three introductory chords are repeated, but compressed in time. Then we have a new theme with two basic ideas: an arpeggio motif and a little scale idea with sixteenth notes. This theme, with its basic idea/contrasting idea structure, seems to be a period:
After that we have fragmentation of the original basic idea (that is when you take a small motif out of the basic idea and repeat it, work it out):
Followed by fragmentation of the sixteenth note motif from the second theme:
Then there is a sequential progression based on the sixteenth note motif. Next comes yet another new theme, this time an eight measure period on the dominant:
After this, some cadential progressions that end the first half of the movement, the exposition. What was I saying before about Haydn just using one theme? In this symphony he decides to go completely in the other direction with three themes!
I won't go into great detail for the rest of the movement. Suffice it to say that all three themes play a part in the development and in the recapitulation, they return in reverse order.
The second movement, an andante in D major, has this odd little theme:
Later on another little four measure theme appears:
These are expanded and varied and the winds have some nice interjections, but that is about all there is in this movement. It has a strange, desultory character.
The minuet and trio are little masterpieces of rhythmic ingenuity. The minuet starts reasonably enough, but in both halves it wanders into 4/4 for a bit which would completely throw off anyone trying to dance to it. Here is that section. It is written in 3/4, but the motif adds a beat so four measures of 3/4 come out sounding like three measures of 4/4:
Then the trio has its own little rhythmic twist. Both the first and second violins have hemiolas where two measures of 3/4 become one measure of 3/2 by tying over the bar line--but they are not aligned! Their hemiolas overlap:
I don't think I have ever seen this effect used by anyone else!
After all that Haydn gives us an elegant finale in tarantella style that just whistles by:
|Click to enlarge|
Now let's listen to the symphony. Here is Christopher Hogwood and the Academy of Ancient Music: